Cappadocia is a touristic region in Turkey consisting of several provinces such as Nevşehir, Aksaray, Niğde, Kayseri and Kırşehir. The origin of the term Cappadocia is controversial. The word Cappadocia may have been derived from the word Katpatuka, which was used first by the Medes and then by the Persians, and finally by the Hellenes. According to some ancient authors, especially old Pilinius (23/24 – 79 AD), the word Cappadocia is derived from the name Cappadox (The Delice Stream), a branch of the Kızılırmak (Kappadokia – the homeland of Cappadox). Additionally, the word Cappadocia is claimed to originate from Cappadox, the son of the Assyrian king Ninia.
There are two elements that make Cappadocia what it is today: volcanoes and erosion. Mount Erciyes (3917 m.), which was formed by young volcanism in Anatolia, Mount Hasan (has two hills: Büyük Hasan Mountain 3268 m., Küçük Hasan Mountain 3069 m.) and Mount Melendiz (2963 m.). Due to the volcanic activities of the site that began almost 2 million years ago, many types of rocks such as tuff and volcanic ash, tuff, lahar, ignimbrite, clay, sandstone, marl, pumice, basalt, andesite spread into the environment. .
Since Neolithic times, the inhabitants of this site took advantage of the soft characteristic of the tuff and built many different things such as houses, churches, castles and underground cities. In addition, due to natural reasons such as the flow of rivers and winds, this soft tuff has eroded and has given rise to natural structures called fairy chimneys, making the site seem like something out of fairy tales and one of the most touristic sites in Turkey.